This post originally appeared on the blog Biology Roots.

5 Helpful Tips for Teaching Genetics by Biology Roots

Here is #2 for my “5 Helpful Tips” series. If you missed the first one, check out 5 Helpful Tips for Teaching Photosynthesis.

Genetics is one of my favorite things to teach *cue sparkly harp music*. I really look forward to teaching genetics! And one thing that makes it so fun for me is discussing human genetics. Human genetics can be a bit mystifying, so I usually don’t bring it up until we’ve discussed polygenic inheritance among other complex patterns, such as incomplete dominance. That is because most human traits are not Mendelian! For example, I have three children. Each one of my children has different colored eyes (hazel, brown, and blue). Students love discussing this stuff and bringing up their own families, too!

Here is a complete list of human genetic myths that you can read for your consideration. But, that doesn’t stop us from making babies in biology class. Besides, I firmly believe we still do not know everything there is to know, and we are making new discoveries every day. I tell my students that we are going to pretend that traits are Mendelian for a day so that we can do our fun Making Babies Heredity Simulation. I really feel that you need to find a happy medium here — I don’t want to teach students that human traits such as eye color and earwax are Mendelian, but I also want them to connect and have fun. So we do a pretend day each year. Besides, it gives them Punnett square practice and I honestly could not imagine teaching genetics without it! The kids have too much fun!

Busting Student Misconceptions:

    • Students tend to struggle with some terminology — it can be really difficult for students to differentiate between terms such as DNA, gene, and allele.  Be sure to remind the students that there is in fact a difference, or maybe even ask them to compare them as a do-now, warm up, or bellringer. 
    • Are popular traits more dominant? No. You know this. Your colleagues know this. But sometimes we forget to mention this to our students. Check out my Exploring Human Traits Lab, in which students are asked to analyze this using your classroom as an example.
    • Epigenetics — students should know that environment can play a role in the characteristics of organisms. Epigenetics studies changes in heritable traits that are outside the human genome. Here is a quick video you can show your students about how epigenetic tags can be passed on:

  • Lastly, be sure to mention a few times along the way that mutations are not always harmful — and in fact some can be a good thing! The two examples I like to use are blue eyes (a neutral mutation) or even a turtle’s shell, which would be considered a positive mutation of its ancestor’s ribcage!

Stay Science Classy,


5 Helpful Tips for Teaching Genetics: Biology RootsVanessa Jason is a Massachusetts native who loves designing captivating science resources; you can find her resources in her TpT store Biology Roots. Vanessa has taught biology, physical science, and forensics. She loves baking, hates cleaning, is beginning to understand gardening, and is working on her first novel. One of her favorite shows to watch is Mythbusters, and she’s trying to convince her husband to try out as the new host. Vanessa has three young children and loves playing outside and exploring with them. You can find her on Facebook, Instagram, and Pinterest.